it does not seem possible that the setup page output you posted came from an updated installation
are you sure your site is hosted on that server and only that server, ie could it be part of a web farm and some other node or a failover server that is not up to date is handling requests for the hostname/domain, could it have been moved to a different server and you are updating an older version where it is not actually running?
the code version is baked into the mojoPortal.Web.dll and if it were higher than the db version it would say schema needs upgrade, it will only say system is up to date it i matches the database version in the mp_SchemaVersion table and it would say 126.96.36.199
188.8.131.52 has been out since April and no-one else has had a problem.
I believe that you believe you are updating the installation whose setup page you are visiting, but the evidence suggests that is not so