Take a look on your server. Does the folder /Setup/applications/blog exist? In order for setup to install the blog module (which yours is not doing), this file has to be present:
I wouldn't recommend trying to manually install the blog feature if setup files are missing. There are SQL scripts in the setup folders that will have to run, and if the config file is missing then chances are other files are missing as well. If files are missing, it's best to do the upload again, using a robust method like FTP. Then run setup and it should install the blog feature.