You could do that by creating excerpts for each blog post and configuring the blog feed to only show excerpts. When you enable excerpts in the blog settings, automatic excerpts will be generated if no explicit excerpt exists on the post but the generated excerpt will just be plain text. To have an image and small description you would need to explicitely edit the excerpts for each post. When you enable excperts you'll see a new tab in the blog edit page where you can edit the excerpt.
Hope that helps,