Your interpretation of the article http://support.google.com/webmasters/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=156449 seems quite different than how I interpret it.
"While Google won't crawl or index the content of pages blocked by robots.txt, we may still index the URLs if we find them on other pages on the web. As a result, the URL of the page and, potentially, other publicly available information such as anchor text in links to the site, or the title from the Open Directory Project (www.dmoz.org), can appear in Google search results."
So they "might" index it in spite of robots.txt if there are external links to the page, but on the same page:
"To entirely prevent a page's contents from being listed in the Google web index even if other sites link to it, use a noindex meta tag or x-robots-tag. As long as Googlebot fetches the page, it will see the noindex meta tag and prevent that page from showing up in the web index. The x-robots-tag HTTP header is particularly useful if you wish to limit indexing of non-HTML files like graphics or other kinds of documents."
Pasting full urls to pages into google search instead of actual search terms may also cause google to find and index an url just as external links would. So its not a good idea to do that for urls such as the ones you've posted and it still could have been done by the seo people working for the competition trying to damage your seo as a tactic to favor their own.
But again I say google will respect the noindex meta as it says in their documentation. I also think it is unlikely that they will index a page that has no meaningful content when it is listed in robots.txt. In this case the url is not in robots.txt so you have not proved me wrong on that. If the page has some meaningful content other than links and was linked from an external page then google might index it according to the article if it does not have the noindex meta.